Introduction to HTML Language

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Sunday, November 20, 2011 0 comments
HTML Language

The full form of HTML is Hypertext Mark-up Language and was composed (invented) by Tim Berners Lee (born on 8 June 1955, a British computer scientist, MIT professor and the inventor of the World Wide Web) in 1990. Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) is commonly used to create a web-site means language for describing web-pages. HTML is not a programming language as a simple, unique mark-up language commonly used to develop web-pages in systematic manner. But, the question is what mark-up language is? Mark-up language is considered as a set of mark-up tags and HTML uses such mark-up tags to distinguish web-pages. Such mark-up tags are commonly called HTML tags.

Now, the question is what are HTML tags? HTML tags are nothing as it considered as keywords which are surrounded by angle brackets and normally HTML tags comes in pairs similar like this - shown in below image. Different HTML tags are used for different processes as for example if you want to bold a sentence or word then, you will use bold pair and in between you will write your sentence or word. In other words, tags comes in pairs as first tag for start tag and second one for end tag. Start and End tags also known as opening and closing tags.


There are number of tags in HTML and we can combine many other languages like CSS (cascade style sheet), Java script etc to create dynamic unique web-page.

All browsers like Mozilla, Chrome, and Internet Explorer etc read HTML documents and display them as web-pages or we can say that a web-site. So, what are HTML documents? HTML documents are those documents which contain HTML tags and plain text as to describe web-pages and those HTML documents are also called Web-pages. Browsers does not show the HTML tags but, use HTML tags due to interpret with the content of the page. The Following is the way to write code in HTML way-


In this way, you can write your code. Finally, Hyper-text Markup Language (HTML) is the first step in internet means priory used first language to create web-pages or web-site and known as common language for internet...

C++ Language Code Line Concepts

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Tuesday, October 25, 2011 0 comments

It is depends up on your computer and on your compiler about the process of compiling your program varies. For now, we will suppose that you are using a WINDOWS machine and in windows, you are using the turbo C compiler.

So here is the program code to see string “Hello World” on your output screen:

General Way to Write Program in C++
To run your program, simply press CTRL + F9 key. You would see the following output:
                                                             Hello World

To debugging your program line-wise then, press F7.

After this we can save our program as hello.cpp where .cpp shows c++ program file.

Let’s take a look at each line of code that makes up hello.cpp.

#include iostream.h 

The effect of this line is to essentially "copy and paste" the entire file iostream.h into your own file at this line. So you can think of this syntax as replacing the line #include with the contents of the file iostream.h. #include is known as a preprocessor directive, which will be covered much later. This file is located somewhere in your include path. The include path indicates the directories on your computer in which to search for a file, if the file is not located in the current directory. In this case, iostream.h is a file containing code for input/output operations. You need to include iostream.h so that the compiler knows about the word cout cin, which appears a couple of lines below.

int main() 

Every C++ program must have what is known as a main function. When you run the program, the program will go through every line of code in the main function and execute it. If your main is empty, then your program will do nothing. There are essentially four parts to a function definition. They are the return type, the function name, the parameter list, and the function body, in that order. In this case:

This is the line that prints out the text string, "Hello, World!". For now, don't worry about how cout works; just know how to use it. You can print out any series of text strings. So, write cout<<"Hello, World!";

Cin works as to scan those text strings. The cout and cin functions are system defined functions used to print the words and scan those words means cin used as input and cout as output.

return 0; 

This line is necessary because the return type of main is int (see above). We'll talk more about functions and return types later, but for now understand that because the function's return type is int, the function must return an int (integer). To return 0 (which is an integer, we simply write return 0;.


getch(); is used to hold output screen as if we compiled our program then, black screen will appear and then, we will easily see our result. Without this, we will press Alt+f5 to visit our output screen. So this is better that once we entered once in our code getch(); and with this, it is compulsory to add #include in our program which shown above in our program.

Finally, these above concepts are the c++ program code lines concepts and all are described well...

Solar Panel or Solar Cells

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Monday, August 1, 2011 0 comments
Solar CellsSolar Panel
Commonly we all know that electricity is very important in this era. This is basic need of human. We all know that powering your life with sun energy is clean, efficient and less expensive than coal-powered electricity. Nowadays, you can see solar panels in many places like- on homes, businesses, and even traffic signals. Solar panels are designed and engineered to capture the most ultraviolet light to convert into electricity. A solar Panel is a connected crew of Solar cells. It is also known as photovoltaic cells.
As we become more concerned with the environment we have begun research on alternative sources of energy. One such source that is gaining traction is solar power. Solar light can be harnessed in various ways, but the main use on a residential level is in the form of solar cells to generate electricity. Electricity is formed by the movement of electrons apart two plates that can be made from silicon, or various other materials. Crystal silicon is very expensive to make and thus there are various quality levels of solar panels with various efficiency and cost factors.
Three types of Solar Panels
1. The most expensive as one of the most efficient residential type is Mono-crystalline panels. It allows for up to 25% efficiency and can be used to produce a large portion of a house’s energy needs as well in some areas selling back to the power companies for profit.
2. The next best type of panel is poly-crystalline panels. As the name implies, this panel is made up as multiple crystals which can be seen directly on panels. It can be described as a Mono-crystalline panel that has been severely cracked. Because of this, efficiency for these panels is not as good, but since they basically use the scraps of Mono-crystalline panels, they are cheaper to purchase.
3. A third type of panel is amorphous solar cells, or thin film. Often this is put into a paint that can be coated on a surface. Since the crystal saturation is far less than the other two panels, this method is by far the least efficient, but because of how much silicon is used and how relatively easy it is to make, it is the cheapest solution.
Solar cells will continue to advance and come down in price. This is a necessity because currently solar homes add a significant price to a home which causes many people to not want to spend the extra money. Finally, Solar Panel importance is increasing day by day...

C++ Language

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Thursday, June 9, 2011 0 comments
C++ Language
C++ is a popular programming language. It was first developed by Bjarne Stroustrup (a computer scientist)in 1979 at Bell labs. In 1983, it was named ‘C++’. It is literally refers to modification of the C language.

C++ is very simple and efficient language. It is considered as middle level language. It comprises combination of both high level and low level language features. It is based on object oriented programming language (OOP) as OOP is based on our daily life activities.
In C++, cout and cin functions are used like printf and scanf functions as printf and scanf are used in C language.
Characteristics of C++
C++ has certain characteristics. The most remarkable are:
1.    Object-oriented programming
C++ is based on OOP.
2.    Portability
You can practically compile the same C++ code in almost any type of computer and operating system without making any changes. C++ is the most used and ported programming language in the world.
3.    Shortness
Code written in C++ is very short in comparison with other languages, since the use of special characters is preferred to key words.
4.    C Compatibility
C++ is backwards compatible with the C language. Any code written in C can easily be included in a C++ program without making any change.
5.    Speed
Its speed of compilation is very better. The resulting code from a C++ compilation is very efficient, due indeed to its duality as high-level and low-level language and to the reduced size of the language itself.
Specialty of C++
The specialty in C++ is its application domains as include systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.
Special Characters
In C++ language, special characters which mostly used are { } [ ] << >>;
The first book of C++ Programming Language was written by the developer “Bjarne Stroustrup” and published in October 1985.

Finally, C++ is one of the most popular programming languages even created as today millions of peoples are using…

PHP Language and its Benefits

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Friday, May 27, 2011 0 comments
PHP Language and its Benefits
PHP is a server side language that can be used in web browsers. PHP was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995. It has many benefits that range from workload, to alloying dynamic content. PHP can be embedded into regular html code, just like JavaScript and CSS, if you change the file's extension to php.

It allows a developer to perform more complicated operations possible within the web environment. Because PHP is server side, it offloads much of the computations from a visitor's web browser, to the internet server.

PHP is a flexible language, and some people prefer to Place the PHP construct directly next to PHP code, like this:
             Hello World. Today is. How are you? 

The Point is that with PHP, web developers have a scripting language that although not as fast as compiling your code in C or a similar language, is incredibly speedy and that also integrates seamlessly with HTML code. 

The visitor's computer is not required to do much of the processor-intensive work. This allows a page to load many times faster than it generally would. In addition, the language is highly optimized, so it does not put a strain on the server hosting the website. PHP is also must cheaper to find hosting because it is open sources, unlike ASP.NET, Visual, and Java.

PHP allows for more centralized data, which allows date to be easily stored in databases. PHP also gives developers much more freedom to create light, feature rich web sites that reuse common elements while still being connected to extended data sources. Being able to store data in databases in tern allows a developer to create dynamic content that can be changed easily without rewriting the entire website.

PHP is executed exclusively by the server and therefore requires nothing from the end user. While servers must have PHP installed, developers would not use the code on servers unable to implement it.

Using PHP, you have unlimited control over you web server. Whether you need to modify your HTML on the fly, process a credit card, add user details to a database, fetch information from a third party web-site, you can do it all from the same PHP files in which the HTML itself resides.

Finally, PHP is very important language, plays unique role in web-page creation…

C++ vs. Java Language

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Wednesday, March 23, 2011 0 comments
C++ vs. Java Language

C++ is a popular programming language. It was first developed by Bjarne Stroustrup (a computer scientist) in 1979 at Bell labs. In 1983, it was named ‘C++’. It is literally refers to modification of the C language. C++ is very simple and efficient language. It is considered as middle level language. It comprises combination of both high level and low level language features. It is based on object oriented programming language (OOP) as OOP is based on our daily life activities. 

Java is a computer programming language developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and appeared in 1995. Java is high-level object-oriented programming language. Java is advanced efficient language. It can be used to create video games, interactive web-pages, really anything that is loosely coded. The origins of the name 'Java' is not clear as all texts are dissimilar about Java. 

C++ vs. Java
If you are into programming and computer science, you no doubt have been exposed to C++. The industry standard is C++ because of its easy expandability and because it is a difficult language to learn when you get into memory management. Many teachers favor it in college, with the attitude of "once you have learned C++, you can learn anything else because everything else is easier." Many everyday applications people use have been programmed in C++.

On the other hand, Java is very object oriented, and offers one thing that helps with the dreaded memory management issues of C++. Java includes a "trash collector" that takes the tedious task of worrying about memory off of the programmer. Many Java critics claim that Java is a bad language to use, because of its slow speed. This may have been the case when Java was first introduced, but with latest releases Java has been proven to run almost as fast as the same application made in C++. Java also includes many packages that aid in graphics coding. In order to achieve these things in C++, you need to fool around with the internal GUI, or learn different languages such as DirectX or OpenGL to accomplish what is already included in Java.

The choice still comes down to the coder. If they prefer a language that is used more they can choose to code in C++. If they want to offload difficult tasks and focus on graphics and GUI interfaces, they can choose Java.

Similarities of Both (C++ & Java): ---

Both have certain similarities. The most remarkable are:

1. Object-oriented programming

Both are based on OOP

2. Portability

You can practically compile the same both (C++ and Java) codes in almost any type of computer and operating system without making any changes. Both are the most used and ported programming language in the world.

3. Shortness

Codes written in both are very short in comparison with other languages, since the use of special characters is preferred to key words.

4. Speed

Speeds of C++ & Java are marvelous as compilation speed is very better.

Finally both are beneficial languages plays an important role in computer programming...

Introduction of UNIX

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Wednesday, February 16, 2011 0 comments


Pronounced yoo-niks, a popular multi-user, multi-tasking operating system developed in the 1960s at the bell laboratory. Created by just a handful of programmers, UNIX was designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers. UNIX is a highly programmable language (an operating system) and still regarded as one of the most powerful, versatile, and flexible operating system (OS) in the computer world. UNIX Systems have Graphical User Interface (GUI) facility like Microsoft Windows which to easy to use. The most famous varieties of UNIX are Sun Solaris, GNU/Linux, and MacOS X.

It was designed for a programmer not for a casual end-user. A programmer can easily operate UNIX operating system.

Multi-tasking Facility
Many computers do just only one thing at a time, as anyone who uses a PC or laptop can attest. But, on the other hand, UNIX lets a computer do several things at once, such as printing out one file while the user edits another file. This is a major feature for users, since users don’t have to wait for one application to end before starting another one.

Multi-user Facility
The computer can take the commands of a number of users, determined by the design of the computer to run programs, access files, and print documents at the same time. This is the best facility of UNIX.

It has fast speed with respect to others and it is mainly divided in three parts as follows -
1. The Kernel
2. The shell and
3. The programs

The Kernel
It controls the hardware and turns part of the system on and off at the programmer’s command. If you ask the computer to list all the files in a directory then, the kernel tells the computer to read all the files in that directory from the disk and display them on your screen.

The Shell
Shell is used to act as an interpreter between the user and the computer as its purpose is same like Kernel. There are several types of shell as most notably the command driven Bourne Shell, the C Shell (no pun intended), and menu-driven shells that make it easier for beginners to use.

The Programs
There are hundreds of programs available to UNIX users. Typically, they are grouped into categories for certain functions, such as word processing, business applications, or programming.

The main features of UNIX are—
• Multitasking capability
• Multiuser capability
• Portability
• UNIX programs
• Library of application software

Finally, UNIX is the best operating system, very admired as today it is using by billions of peoples…

Introduction of C Language

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On 0 comments

Introduction of C LanguageC language is the first language of the PC system which was developed between 1969 and 1973 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Telephone Laboratories. The primarily development of ‘C’ occurred in AT&T Bell Laboratories. In 1978 Brain Kernighan and Ritchie printed a definitive description of the language observed to as K & R version of C. Various C compilers and interpreters had been written for various operational systems. This created some minor incompatibilities among totally different implementations of the language. That's reason, the ANSI (American National Standard Institute) worked on a typical (standard) version of C language.
C has diverse data types for diverse types of data and can be broadly classified as:

1. Primary data types
2. Secondary data types

These above broadly classified data types are well illustrated at below Image…

C Data Types

C is an all purpose programming language. It is equally suitable for generating higher level applications and lower level applications. C language encourages the users to write their own library function so that they can extend the features of the language and C program can be executed on any type of computers. The program written in C language can be converted into machine language more efficiently. Computer games can be generated in C language which is accomplished through the usage of sound graphics. Both low and high level programming can be done in C language. C language is the address manipulation which can be done through the usage of pointers. C is simple, fast, and efficient, the first stage for a programmer. C is close to hardware.

Why we have a tendency to use C firstly?

In today’s world of computer languages, there are several high-level languages to decide on from, like Pascal, BASIC, and Java. However C stands excluding of these languages. This is often owing to its several fascinating qualities. It's a strong language whose wealthy set of constitutional functions and operators is wont to write any complicated logic program. The C language compiler combines the capabilities of an occasional (low) level language with the options of a high level language. so the language is appropriate for writing each system code still as business packages & different code. You'll several compilers offered within the market written in C.

The general way to write program in ‘C’ as-

void main ()
   printf (“Hello”);

Here, output will - Hello

Through this way, programs can be written in “C Language”. Programs are of several types in ‘C’ as switch case programs, array programs, pointer programs, functions programs etc. All have different uses on different places.

Finally, C is the primary common language of Computer System…