How to Fix Blue Screen of Death BSOD

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Tuesday, November 27, 2012 0 comments

Hello everyone, today in this article, I am going to represent you solutions for Blue Screen of Death (BSOD). What is Blue Screen of Death? BSOD is nothing as just a very common error which occurs in almost all versions of Windows OS whether Windows 7 or Windows XP or Vista. It is occur whenever windows encounter a serious problem caused OS halted. It can be occur through major or minor hardware or software related issues. Yeah, that’s right that you can solve this problem through restart of your PC but, many times the Blue Screen of Death doesn't allows you to reach to your desktop or even you reached to your desktop but, within minutes it will appear again sudden. It could be possible that it can annihilate a fresh copy of windows installed in your computer. So, how to fix BSOD?

You can easily fix this BSOD issue through follow some of my simple steps. Before we get started, you must examine all the factors that have triggered BSOD. Here are some tips that you should do when you encounter a BSOD. These are –

1.      Some BSODs are too bad that can really end up your fresh copy of Windows which is installed on your system. Whenever you will not able to access your data after the appearance of Blue Screen of Death then, you can get lost through of all your precious data. So in order to get all your previous data, you need to try your best to reach the desktop as you can try by going into the ‘Safe Mode’ option or ‘Last Known Good Configuration’ option. You can try both of these options through pressing the F8 key from your keyboard but, before the appearance of the Windows loading screen. If you will do it correctly then, you will found the ‘Windows Advanced Options Menu’ screen where you will get these options as Safe Mode, Safe Mode with Networking, Last Known Good Configuration and many more. Take a look at the below screenshot of Windows Advanced Options Menu.

Last Known Good Configuration

2.      If your PC is displaying the ‘Blue Screen of Death’ screen after the recent installation of any hardware or software then, try to uninstalling that hardware or software and watch if that resolves the issue. After uninstalling the recent hardware or software that caused the problem, you can perform virus scan on your system for best results.

3.      Whenever you will get the BSOD, please also read the message appears on it carefully which caused the problem BSOD. Usually, the error screen contains a ‘STOP ERROR’ code which consists of alphabets and numbers. The code created based on the problems that have caused the BSOD error. So, here you need is to note the error code.

Stop Error

Now the next thing is to find out what caused the BSOD by searching through STOP ERROR code on the internet. You can do this on your secondary PC as all you need is to type the STOP ERROR code on Google or any other search engine and hire out what solutions are available. A very good way to hire solutions for all kinds of Blue Screen of Death errors is to take a look at the Microsoft Support website. At Support Center, you will get all the possible results that you can use to get rid through BSOD screen.

Microsoft Support

4.      One more way to get rid through BSOD is to repairing registry errors by registry applications that are caused by software. And alternatively, you can also try the System Restore option in order to go back to a date when your computer was working properly.

System Restore

Through above ways, you can easily get rid through Blue Screen of Death (BSOD). I hope, article is useful and helpful for you, feel free to make comment (feedback)…          

What do you mean by SQL

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Monday, November 26, 2012 0 comments
Structured Query Language
SQL stands for structured query language. It is used to communicate with the database. Whenever any data is to be accessed from the database, we can do it through the SQL, and user can access the required data from the database, can manipulate data, can define the data in the database through SQL. SQL is a standard language for accessing databases.

SQL is supposed as structured query language for relational database management systems (RDBMS). SQL uses the combination of relational algebra and relational calculus constructs. It has many other capabilities besides querying the database. It includes the features of defining the structure of the data, for modifying data in the database and for specifying security constraints.

SQL has established as standard relational database language, and its original version was developed at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory. It is also called SEQUEL and was implemented as part of the system R project. The purpose of this project was to validate the feasibility of relational model and to implement a DBMS based on this model. The results of this project are well documented in database literature. 

Additionally, to contributing to the concept of query compilation and optimization and concurrency control mechanisms, the most salient result of this project was the development of SQL. SQL is a nonprocedural language. Users describe in SQL what they want to do and the SQL language compiler automatically generates a procedure to navigate the database and performs the desired task.

Different parts of SQL

Different Parts of SQL 
  1. Data Definition Language: It provides the commands for defining relation schemas, deleting relations, creating indices and modifying relation schemas.

  2. Data Manipulation Language: It includes a query language based on both the relational algebra and the tuple relational calculus. It also provides commands to insert, delete, and modify tuples in the database. 

  3. View Definition: It includes commands for defining views. 

  4. Transaction Control: It includes commands for specifying the beginning and ending of transactions. 

  5. Integrity: The SQL DDL provides commands, for specifying integrity constraints, that the data stored in the database irriust satisfy. Updates that can violate integrity constraints are disallowed. 

  6. Authorization: The SQL DDL provides commands for specifying access rights to relations and views. 

  7. Embedded SQL and Dynamic SQL: Embedded and dynamic SQL define how SQL statements are embedded within programming languages such as C, C++, Java.

What is Operating System?

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Saturday, November 24, 2012 0 comments
Different Operating Systems
Computer hardware provides us the means of processing and storing information. In order to perform useful work for us it has been driven by means of software program which specify the task to be done. Software can be classified into two distinct group - (1) System Software, (2) Application Software. 

System Software- These software's are designed to provide an environment to facilitate the writing of application program. Example-Assemblers, loader, Compiler interpreter, operating system etc. 

Application Software - It consist of collection of program, written by programmer in order to perform some specific task for users. Example - Word Processor, spread sheets, web browser etc.

Definition of Operating System: “Operating system is a system software. It is a collection of program works between the user and hardware of computer. So that application program i.e. user program can run in convenient and efficient manner”. 

Operating system is a chief part of almost every computer system which manages the resources of computer system. Such as microprocessor, primary and secondary storage devices & input/output devices. It keeps the information regarding the status of each resources and decides how long and when to allocate them to specific particular program and users in order to operate the computer system efficiently and fairly. 

Computer system is divided into four parts:

(1) Hardware,
(2) Operating System,
(3) Application Software and
(4) Users 

Computer System Parts

There are two main goals of operating system -

1.       Convenience - The primary goals of operating system is to make computer system easier for user i.e. operating system makes the interaction between user and hardware easier.

2.      Efficient - The secondary goal of OS is to allocate the system resources to various application programs as efficiently as possible. 

Functions of Operating System 

1. Processor management, that is, allocation of processors to different works being done by the computer system. 

2. Memory management, that is, assignment of main memory and other storage areas to the system programs, user programs and data. 

3. Input/Output management, that is, proper interaction and allocation of the various input and output devices when different programs are being executed. 

4. File management, that is, keeping record of files on various storage devices and move all these files from one device to another. It provides facility to all files to be easily changed by the use of text editors. 

5. Give emphasis on building a job priority system. That is, it finds out and keeps record of order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system. 

6. Switching from job to job as guided by special control statements, automatically. 

7. Understand the meaning of commands and instructions. 

8. Making interfacing and allocation of compilers, assemblers, utility programs, etc to the various users of the computer system. 

9. Building mechanism of data security and integrity. That is, it stores different programs and data in a way that they do not communicate with each other and also protects itself from being damaged by any other user. 

10. Generation of traces, error messages, and other debugging and error-detecting facility. 

11. For all users keep record of internal time clock and log of system usage. 

12. Help easy interfacing between the computer system and the human operator. 

Efficiency of Operating System 

The efficiency of an operating system and the overall performance of a computer installation are judged by a combination of two main factors. They are: 

1. Throughput - It is the total amount of work performed by the computer system over a given duration of time. 

2. Turnaround Time - It is also known as response time and is defined as the difference of time between the time a user submits his job to the system for processing and the time he receives output. 

Ways to interact with Operating System (OS)

1.       By means of operating system call in a program.
2.      Directly by means of Operating System Commands.

System Call

System call provides mechanism for communication between the operating system and user program (processes). The set of system call vary from different operating system. Initially, system calls are written as assembly language instruction. But at present, these are available as high level languages such as 'C, Pascal etc. System calls are classified into five categories- 

1. Process management system call.
2. File management system call.
3. Device management system call.
4. Information management system call.
5. Communication system call.

Types of System Calls and their respective operation

i) Process control system call
(a) end, abort
(b) load, execute
(c) create process, terminate process
(d) get process attributes, set process attributes
(e) wait for time
(f) wait event, signal event
(g) allocate and free memory 

ii) File management system call
(a) Create file, delete file
(b) open, close
(c) read, write, reposition
(d) get file attributes, set file attributes

iii) Device management system call
(a) request device, release device
(b) read, write, reposition
(c) get device attributes, set device attributes
(d) logically attach or detach devices

iv) Information maintenance system call
(a) get time or date, set time or date
(b) get system data, set system data
(c) get process, file, or device attributes
(d) set process, file, or device attributes 

v) Communications system call
(a) create, delete communication connection
(b) send, receive massages
(c) transfer status information
(d) attach or detach remote devices

System Commands
The second way to interact directly with the operating system is with the help of commands. As type commands in MS DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) Command Prompt in order interact with the OS directly. There are various commands as each has different use. To know more about command prompt and to get list of commands of windows OS commands– Just Click here!

How To Chat With Your Friends Using MS Dos Command Prompt

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On 0 comments

Command Prompt Chat
Hello everyone, today in this article, I am gonna to represent you – how to chat with your friends using ms dos command prompt. This article is representing some easy steps in order to make your own messenger program. So, are you ever thinking to chat with your friends by your own hand made program? Or are you want to boast with your friends that you create a messenger? In order to do this, just follow my simple steps as –

Firstly, you need is to know your friends IP addresses. We will use these IP addresses as target means where we will send the message. The other things which you required are only computer and MS DOS Command Prompt. 

So –
             1.       Open notepad file and please grab the following below code and paste it in your notepad file –

@echo off
set /p n=User:
set /p m=Message:
net send %n% %m%
Goto A


2.      Now the second step is to save that notepad file through .bat extension. You can give any desired name based on you but, must be saved through .bat extension. For example, I choose the name TechKoW.bat.


3.      After saved successfully, open that .bat file through double click or enter key. After double click, Command Prompt will visible with a message like this:

Enter IP address and Custom Message

4.      So, enter your friend’s computer IP address and the only thing left is to enter your custom message and to send it.

In this way, you can chat with your friends using MS Dos Command Prompt. I hope you like this step to step tutorial. Feel free to make comment (feedback)...

What are SMTP, FTP and POP3

Posted by Bhavesh Joshi On Friday, November 23, 2012 0 comments

SMTP Server
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) servers run the SMTP protocol. After you connect with a SMTP Server (which your e -mail consumer will after you send a message), your laptop can send it all the data within the message, as well as admitting who it is from, wherever it's going, and what trying to says. The SMTP server then dispatches it to a mail server, wherever the recipients' names are hunted on a DNS (domain name server), and so the message are delivered. The recipient can receive the message, unremarkably through POP3 (Post Office Protocol). So finally, SMTP server is that the opening step to delivering an email message. 

Working of SMTP 

SMTP defines the format for messages sent between TCP/IP hosts on the net. SMTP generally use plain 7-bit ASCII text to dispatch e-mail messages and to issue SMTP commands to receiving hosts. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is often used to encode multipart binary files as well as attachments into a kind that SMTP will handle. 

SMTP provides a mechanism for forwarding e-mail from one TCP/IP host to a different over the net. SMTP services using on a TCP/IP host prior develop a connection to a remote host through Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port Twenty Five (25). SMTP session is then initiated by a dispatching a hello command and after it, receiving an OK response. The dispatching system (computer) is then, uses the subsequent commands to send messages: 

Mail fr : Identifies the dispatching (sending) host to the receiving host. 

Rcpt to : Identifies the targeted message recipient to the receiving host through the Domain Name System (DNS) format user@DNSdomain. 

Data : Initiates the dispatching (sending) of the message body as a series of lines of ASCII text and it ends with a single period (.) with on a line. 

Quit : Closes the SMTP affiliation (connection). 

Note : SMTP provides message transport solely from one SMTP host to a different. Support for storing messages in mailboxes is provided by Post Office Protocol V3 (Version 3) (POPS) and Internet Mail Access Protocol V4 (IM4P4). 

What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

File Transfer Protocol  File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard kind of Internet protocol, is that the easiest method to exchange files between computers on the net. Just like the Hyper- text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), who transfers displayable websites and similar files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), that transfers electronic mail, FTP is an application protocol which uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is often used to deliver website files from their creator to the pc (computer) that acts as their server for everybody on the net. It is also unremarkably used to transfer or download programs and other files to your laptop from alternative servers. FTP is that the most well-liked methodology of exchanging files as a result of it's quicker than alternative protocols like hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) or POP (Post Office Protocol). If you would like to exchange giant files, you must take into account FTP. FTP content is dispatched and received by pc (computer) port 21 and below the transmission control protocol. 

The transfer is asynchronous, that means not at constant time, and thus quicker than alternative protocols. 

Objectives of FTP were:
I. FTP is used to promote sharing of files as computer programs and/or data.
II. It is used to encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers.
III. To defend a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts and
IV. It is used to transfer content faithfully and with efficiency. 

FTP is meant chiefly to be used by programs although it's usable directly by a user at a terminal. 

Useful FTP Commands are as follows -

1. ascii : This command is used to make changes to text mode. It is necessary for uploading a homepage file (index.html). ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

2. Binary : Changes to binary mode. Necessary to transfer (upload) a computer file, like an image. 

3. Dir : List files, with additional information than "Lbs".

4. put (filename) : transfer or upload (filename) from your machine. 

5. get (filename) : transfer or upload (filename) to your machine. 

6. CD (directory name) : Changes directory on the remote machine. 

7. LCD (directory name) : It is used to changes directory on your native (home) pc. 

8. mg et (files) : This command is used to download multiple files to your machine. 

9. mp ut (files) : This command is used to download multiple files from your machine. 

10. bye : shut the ftp session. 

11. quit/close/bye/disconnect : to disconnect from the FTP server. 

12. facilitate : Shows an inventory of obtainable ftp commands.

What's POP3 (Post Office Protocol Version 3)

An Internet standard protocol for stocking and retrieving data (messages) from SMTP hosts. SMTP provides the Underlying transport mechanism for dispatching electronic mail messages over the net, however it doesn't offer any facility for storing messages and retrieving them. SMTP hosts should be always connected from one to other, however most users don't have a passionate connection to the net. 

POP3 provides mechanisms for stocking messages sent to every user and received by SMTP in a very receptable known as a mailbox. A POP3 server stores messages for every user till the user connects to transfer or download and watch them through a POPS consumer like Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Mail and News or Microsoft Outlook Express. To retrieve a message from a POPS server, a POPS consumer develpos a transmission control protocol session through transmission control protocol port 110, identifies itself to the server, and after it issue a series of POP3 Commands as stat, list, retr, quit etc.